They are also
frequently used both chopped and raw in
salads, or cooked in stir-fries or other
mixed dishes. They can be sliced vertically
and fried, or chopped and incorporated into
salsas or other sauces.
They can be preserved by drying or pickling.
Dried peppers may be reconstituted whole, or
processed into flakes or powders. Pickled or
marinated peppers are frequently added to
sandwiches or salads. Extracts can be made
and incorporated into hot sauces.
In 2005, a
poll of 2,000 people revealed the capsicum
pepper to be Britain's 4th favourite
varieties of the same species can be used in
many different ways; for example, C. annuum
includes the "bell pepper" variety, which is
sold in both its immature green state and
its ripe red state, where it is called
This same species has other varieties as
well, such as the Anaheim chiles often used
for stuffing, the dried Ancho chile used to
make chili powder, the mild-to-hot Jalapeño,
and the smoked ripe Jalapeño, known as a
Most of the capsaicin in a pepper is found
in the interior ribs that divide the
chambers of the fruit, and to which the
seeds are attached. At the stem end of the
pod, glands secrete the capsaicin, which
then spreads throughout, but is concentrated
on the ribs and seeds. The amount varies
very significantly by variety, and is
measured in Scoville heat units (SHU),
ranging from the mild bell pepper to the
scorching Habanero chile.
Synonyms and common names
given to the fruits varies between
* In Australia and New Zealand, heatless
species are called "capsicums" while hot
ones are called "chilli/chillies" (two L's).
The term "bell peppers" is sometimes used,
usually in reference to C. annuum and other
varieties which look like a "capsicum" or
bell but are fairly hot. A common Australian
mispronunciation of the word is "capsicun".
* In the United Kingdom, Ireland, and
Canada, the heatless varieties are called
"peppers" or "sweet peppers" (or "green
peppers", "red peppers", etc) while the hot
ones are "chilli/chillies" (two L's).
* In the United States the common heatless
species is referred to as "bell peppers",
"red/green/etc peppers" or simply "peppers",
while the hot species are collectively
called "chile/chiles", "chili/chilies", or
"chili/chile peppers" (one L only).
The name "pepper" came into use because the
plants were hot in the same sense as the
condiment black pepper, Piper nigrum. There
is no botanical relationship with this
plant, however, nor with Sichuan Pepper.
In Spanish-speaking countries there are many
different names for each variety and
preparation. The dominant Spanish term is
chile, though Pacific South American
countries, such as Chile, whose name is
unrelated, use ají.
In India and Pakistan capsicum is commonly
called 'Shimla Mirch'. Shimla incidentally
is a popular hill-station in India. However
the word capsicum is said by English
speakers in India.