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Jewish Recipes --> Spices and Ingredients  -- > Peppers -- > Capsicum Pepper

Capsicum is a genus of plants from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Some of the members of Capsicum are used as spices, vegetables, and medicines. The fruit of Capsicum plants is commonly known as chile pepper or just pepper.

They originated in Central and South America, but are now grown worldwide.

In Israel capsicum is commonly called pilpel, meaning pepper in Hebrew.

Capsaicin

The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin (methyl vanillyl nonenamide), a lipophilic chemical that can produce a strong burning sensation in the mouth (and, if not properly digested, anus) of the unaccustomed eater. Most mammals find this unpleasant; however birds are unaffected, and it therefore appears that the secretion of capsaicin is an adaptation to protect the fruit from consumption by mammals while the bright colors attract birds that will spread the seeds. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is highly variable and is dependant on genetics, giving almost all types of peppers varied amounts of perceived heat. The only pepper without capsaicin is the bell pepper. Chile peppers are of great importance in Native American medicine, and capsaicin is used in modern Western medicine—mainly in topical preparations—as a circulatory stimulant and pain reliever.

Cuisine

Capsicum fruits and peppers can be eaten raw or cooked. Those used in cooking are generally varieties of the C. annuum and C. frutescens species, though a few others are used as well. They are suitable for stuffing with fillings such as cheese, meat or rice.

They are also frequently used both chopped and raw in salads, or cooked in stir-fries or other mixed dishes. They can be sliced vertically and fried, or chopped and incorporated into salsas or other sauces.

They can be preserved by drying or pickling. Dried peppers may be reconstituted whole, or processed into flakes or powders. Pickled or marinated peppers are frequently added to sandwiches or salads. Extracts can be made and incorporated into hot sauces.

In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the capsicum pepper to be Britain's 4th favourite culinary vegetable.

Varieties

Many varieties of the same species can be used in many different ways; for example, C. annuum includes the "bell pepper" variety, which is sold in both its immature green state and its ripe red state, where it is called "pimento".

This same species has other varieties as well, such as the Anaheim chiles often used for stuffing, the dried Ancho chile used to make chili powder, the mild-to-hot Jalapeño, and the smoked ripe Jalapeño, known as a Chipotle.

Most of the capsaicin in a pepper is found in the interior ribs that divide the chambers of the fruit, and to which the seeds are attached. At the stem end of the pod, glands secrete the capsaicin, which then spreads throughout, but is concentrated on the ribs and seeds. The amount varies very significantly by variety, and is measured in Scoville heat units (SHU), ranging from the mild bell pepper to the scorching Habanero chile.

Synonyms and common names

The name given to the fruits varies between English-speaking countries.

* In Australia and New Zealand, heatless species are called "capsicums" while hot ones are called "chilli/chillies" (two L's). The term "bell peppers" is sometimes used, usually in reference to C. annuum and other varieties which look like a "capsicum" or bell but are fairly hot. A common Australian mispronunciation of the word is "capsicun".
* In the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Canada, the heatless varieties are called "peppers" or "sweet peppers" (or "green peppers", "red peppers", etc) while the hot ones are "chilli/chillies" (two L's).
* In the United States the common heatless species is referred to as "bell peppers", "red/green/etc peppers" or simply "peppers", while the hot species are collectively called "chile/chiles", "chili/chilies", or "chili/chile peppers" (one L only).

The name "pepper" came into use because the plants were hot in the same sense as the condiment black pepper, Piper nigrum. There is no botanical relationship with this plant, however, nor with Sichuan Pepper.

In Spanish-speaking countries there are many different names for each variety and preparation. The dominant Spanish term is chile, though Pacific South American countries, such as Chile, whose name is unrelated, use ají.

In India and Pakistan capsicum is commonly called 'Shimla Mirch'. Shimla incidentally is a popular hill-station in India. However the word capsicum is said by English speakers in India.

Sept 2005 - 2013 - Kosher Recipes - Kosher Cooking - Jewish Cooking - Jewish Recipes - Jewish Foods