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Jewish Recipes --> Recipes --> Vegetable Dishes --> Artichokes

Artichokes Recipes:

Artichokes

Artichokes are three types of vegetables. When unqualified, the term "artichoke" nearly always refers to the globe artichoke, of which the aboveground part is eaten, in contrast to the other two, where a root part is eaten. The word artichoke is taken from the Arabic ارضي شوكي (ardi shauki) or ارضي شوك (ardi shauk), meaning literally, "ground-thorn."

The Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) is a species of thistle. The edible part of the plant is the base (receptacle) of the artichoke head in bud, properly called a vegetable as it is harvested well before any fruit develops. With regards to America, it was first brought to California by Italians in the 1880s, and is farmed mostly in that state.

The Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus is a species of sunflower. The edible part of the plant is the tuber.

The Chinese artichoke Stachys affinis is a species of woundwort. The edible part of the plant is the tuber.

The Jerusalem artichoke

Also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable.


Despite its name, the Jerusalem artichoke has no relation to Jerusalem, and little to do with artichokes. The name Jerusalem is due to folk etymology; when the Jerusalem artichoke was first discovered it was called Girasole, the Italian word for sunflower. The Jerusalem artichoke is a type of sunflower, in the same genus as the garden sunflower Helianthus annuus. Over time the name Girasole transformed into Jerusalem, and to avoid confusion people have recently started to refer to it as sunchoke or sunroot, which is closer to the original Native American name for the plant.

The artichoke part of the Jerusalem artichoke's name comes from its taste of its edible tuber, which is a cross between a radish and a artichoke.

The tubers are gnarly and uneven, vaguely resembling ginger root, with a crisp texture when raw. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae (including the artichoke), the tubers store the carbohydrate inulin (not to be confused with insulin) instead of starch. For this reason, Jerusalem artichoke tubers are an important source of fructose for industry. The carbohydrates gives the tubers a tendency to break down and dissolve when cooked, in addition to giving them a legendary facility to produce flatulence.

Jerusalem artichokes are sold in the produce departments of many supermarkets. The freshest roots are plumpish and vibrant in appearance. If they are left too long in the open, they become wrinkled and soft and can develop a bitter taste.

History

Jerusalem artichokes were cultivated by the Native Americans (who called them "sun roots") long before the arrival of the Europeans. The French explorer Samuel de Champlain found them being grown at Cape Cod in 1605.
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Cultivation

Jerusalem artichokes are trivial to cultivate, the ease of which tempts gardeners to simply leave them completely alone to grow. However the quality of the edible tubers degrades unless the plants are dug up and replanted in fertile soil. This can be a chore, as even a small piece of tuber will grow if left in the ground, making the hearty plant a potential weed.

If it's not an artichoke and it's not from Jerusalem

Where in the world did the name come from? One theory holds Jerusalem is a corruption of the Italian girasola, meaning "turning toward the sun," a reference to the sunflower. Another theory involves another garbling of the Ter Neusen, Netherlands area where the sunchoke was originally introduced to Europe. Artichoke comes from the Arabic al-khurshuf, meaning thistle, another reference to appearance of the above-ground foliation. These days, you'll find them marketed under the less foreign sounding name of sunchokes. Whether you refer to it as Jerusalem artichoke, sunroot or sunchoke, the tubers have a delicate flavor that is slightly sweet and nut-like, similar to jicama and water chestnuts.

The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

Nutrition Facts Artichokes

  • Amount Per 1 artichoke, medium (128 g)
  • Calories 60

% Daily Value*

  • Total fat 0.2 g 0%
  • Saturated fat 0 g 0%
  • Polyunsaturated fat 0.1 g
  • Monounsaturated fat 0 g
  • Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
  • Sodium 120 mg 5%
  • Potassium 474 mg 13%
  • Total Carbohydrate 13 g 4%
  • Dietary fiber 7 g 28%
  • Sugar 1.3 g
  • Protein 4.2 g 8%
  • Vitamin A 0%
  • Vitamin C 25%
  • Calcium 5%
  • Iron 8%
  • Vitamin B-6 5%
  • Vitamin B-12 0%
  • Magnesium 19%

*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Sources include: USDA

Sept 2005 - 2013 - Kosher Recipes - Kosher Cooking - Jewish Cooking - Jewish Recipes - Jewish Foods